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Three-Dimensional Shade Analysis

Perspectives of Color--Part I

Although color is evident in daily function, it is often misunderstood and obscured by misconceptions. While the literature focuses on mathematical formulas and specific facets of color, little research exists on the fundamental aspects of color realization. This podcast demonstrates the principles of color, which includes definitions, measurements, sensations, and perceptions in conjunction with its practical application in restorative dentistry.

*Private practice, North Harrow, United Kingdom 


Learning Objectives:

This podcast demonstrates the principles of color as they relate to restorative dentistry. Upon completing this podcast, the listener should have:

  • An improved understanding of the sensation of color.
  • The ability to predictably use color in restorative dentistry.


Related Reading:

  1. Myers DG. Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, Inc; 1998.
  2. Billmeyer FW Jr, Saltzman M. Principles of Color Technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1981.
  3. Newton I. Opticks. London, England: Innys; 1730.
  4. CIE 1971: International Commission on Illumination. Colorimetry: Official Recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination., Publication CIE No. 15 (E-1.3.1), Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris.
  5. Precise color communication: Color control from feeling to instrumentation. Minolta Co. LTD, Osaka, Japan: 1994.
  6. Munsell AH. Munsell Book of Color. Baltimore, MD: Munsell Color Co; 1929.
  7. Munsell AH. A Color Notation. 11th ed. Baltimore, MD: Munsell Color Co; 1961.
  8. Judd DB, Wyszecki G. Color in Business, Science, and Industry. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1975.
  9. Marks WB, Dobelle WH, MacNichol EF Jr. Visual pigments of single primate cones. Science 1964;143:1181-1183.
  10. Geldard FA. The Human Senses. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1972:161.
  11. DeValoise RL, DeValoise KK. Neural coding of color. In: EC Carterette, MP Friedman, eds. Handbook of Perception: Vol V. Seeing. New York, New York: Academic Press; 1975:162.
  12. Yamada K. Porcelain laminate veneers for discolored teeth using complementary colors, Int J Prosthodont 1993;6(3):242-247.
  13.  Jackendoff R. Consciousness and the Computational Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Bradford Books; 1987.
  14. Churchland PS, Sejnowski TJ. The Computational Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Bradford Books; 1992.
  15. Crick F, Koch C. Are we aware of neural activity in primary visual cortex? Nature, 1995;375:121-123.
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