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Risk Factors and Treatment of Periodontitis

Learning Objectives:

After listening to and reviewing this podcast, the listener should:

  • Gain an understanding of the risk factors that increase the chances of developing periodontitis
  • Understand different treatment options for periodontitis 

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease whose progression is dependent on the response of the affected host body. Since the gingiva is in a constant balance between pathological wounding by the bacterial plaque and wound healing, any metabolic disturbance, such as diabetes, in the host compromises tissue repair and healing and accelerates the progression of periodontitis. However, significant differences in the clinical parameters between diabetic and nondiabetic patients have not been established. A 3-year long study of diabetes mellitus patients determined that the duration of the diabetic condition and a patient's metabolic control may affect the onset of periodontitis. 

Related Reading:
  1. Genco R. Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-1049. 
  2. MacGregor IDM, Edgar WM, Greenwood AR. Effects of cigarette smoking on the rate of plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol 1985;12:35-41. 
  3. Brochut PF, Cimasoni G, Tabagisme, Parodonte I. Rev Mens Suisse Odonto-stomatol 1997;8:673-680. 
  4. Hanes PJ, Schuster GS, Lubas S. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts. J Periodontol 1991;62:147-152. 
  5. McGuire JR, McQuade MJ, Rossmann JA, et al. Cotinine in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid of smokers with periodontal disease. J Periodontol 1989;60:176-181. 
  6. Raulin LA, McPherson JC, McQuade MJ, Hanson BS. The effect of nicotine on the attachment of human fibroblasts to glass and human root surfaces in vitro. J Periodontol 1988;59:318-325. 
  7. MacLaughlin WS, Lovat GM, MacGregor ID, Kelly PJ. The immediate effects of smoking on gingival fluid flow. J Clin Periodontol 1993;20:448-451. 
  8. Ketabi M, Hirsch RS. The effects of local anesthetic containing adrenaline on gingival blood flow in smokers and non-smokers. J Clin Periodontol 1997;24(12):888-892. 
  9. Doxey DL, Cutler CW, Iacopino AM. Diabetes prevents periodontitis-induced increases in gingival platelet derived growth factor-B and interleukin 1-beta in a rat model. J Periodontol 1998;69(2):113-119. 
  10. Sbordone L, Ramaglia L, Barone A, et al. Periodontal status and subgingival microbiota of insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics: A 3-year longitudinal study. J Periodontol 1998;69(2):120-122. 
  11. Christou V, Timmerman MF, Van der Velden U, Van der Weijden FA. Comparison of different approaches of interdental oral hygiene: Interdental brushes versus dental floss. J Periodontol 1998;69(7):759-764. 
  12. Woodall IR. Comprehensive dental hygiene care. 
  13. Greenstein G, Polson A. The role of local drug delivery in the management of periodontal diseases: A comprehensive review. J Periodontol 1998;69(5):507-520. 
  14. Papaioannou W, Bollen C, Van Eldere J, Quirynen M. The adherence of periodontopathogens to periodontal probes. A possible factor in intraoral transmission. J Periodontol 1996;66:1164-1169. 
  15. Golub LM, Lee HM, Greenwald RA, et al. A matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor reduces bone-type collagen degradation fragments and specific collagenases in gingival crevicular fluid during adult periodontitis. Inflamm Res 1997;46:310-319. 
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