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Case Study
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Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Restorations

Laboratory Protocol

Learning Objectives:

As a result of reviewing this case study, the reader should:

  • Understand the advantages of using Porcelain-Fused-to Metal-Restorations
  • Learn techniques for the implementation of these restorations


The evolution of dental porcelains and advanced fabrication techniques has enabled clinicians and laboratory technicians to provide an increased quality of healthcare for their patients. While the collaboration of such professionals has permitted durable, aesthetic restorations to be fabricated with improved success and predictability, these efforts must be carefully planned prior to the initiation of a particular treatment.

Many clinicians once believed that only all-porcelain jacket crowns were capable of achieving optimal aesthetics in the restoration of the anterior dentition. Subsequent developments in material science have demonstrated that porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations with a vertically reduced framework are also capable of providing the highest level of aesthetics, strength, and longevity to any substrate (ie, vital tooth, discolored or metallic cores). The utilization of a Geller framework improves the translucency of the restoration at the cervical aspect, eliminates shadowing effects, and incor­porates the enhanced strength of a metallic substructure. In addition, this type of restoration does not require the use of expensive equipment or complex technical procedures.

This presentation emphasizes the laboratory protocol used to fabricate six maxillary restorations and highlights the considerations that must be addressed during the treatment. When these concerns are properly addressed by the restorative team, it is possible to develop an optimum final result in terms of shape, position, color, translucency, texture, and gingival integration.

*Dental technician, Oral Design, Nancy, France.


Related Reading:

  1. Saad Del-D, Atta O, El-Mowafy O. The postoperative sensitivity of fixed partial dentures cemented with self-adhesive resin cements: a clinical study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010 Dec;141(12):1459-66.
  2. Zarone F, Russo S, Sorrentino R. From porcelain-fused-to-metal to zirconia: Clinical and experimental considerations. Dent Mater. 2010 Nov 20.
  3. Smith R. Creating well-fitting restorations with a digital impression system. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2010 Oct;31(8):640-4.
  4. Alves CC, Correia AR, Neves M. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2010 Oct;30(5):447-55.
  5. Jörn D, Waddell JN, Swain MV. The influence of opaque application methods on the bond strength and final shade of PFM restorations. J Dent. 2010;38 Suppl 2:e143-9.
  6. Waddell JN, Girvan L, Aarts JM, Wu W, Swain MV. Elemental composition of imported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns--a pilot study. N Z Dent J. 2010 Jun;106(2):50-4.
  7. Ghavamnasiri M, Maleknejad F, Modabber M. Porcelain fused to metal crown as an abutment of a metal-ceramic resin-bonded fixed partial denture: a clinical report. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2010 Mar 1;11(2):064-70.
  8. Andriani W Jr, Suzuki M, Bonfante EA, Carvalho RM, Silva NR, Coelho PG. Mechanical testing of indirect composite materials directly applied on implant abutments. J Adhes Dent. 2010 Aug;12(4):311-7. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.a17710.
  9. Luo XP, Shi YJ, Huang XF. The etiological analysis of the patient's gingival lesion and discoloration caused by the defective porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration crown. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Jun;45(6):381-3. 
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